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Breast Medical Imaging Equipment-X-Ray Molybdenum Target

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Update time : 2023-09-08 16:56:00
There are many theories about the cause of breast cancer, some say it is caused by fatigue, staying up late and mental stress, some say it is caused by genetic factors, and some say it is related to fertility. But there is a saying that is unified all over the world, that is: early screening is the most effective means to prevent breast cancer.
As a woman, regardless of whether she has given birth or not, regardless of her age, regular breast cancer screening is very necessary. For breast cancer screening, medical imaging equipment is the main force, and new technologies and methods are constantly emerging. This time we will take stock of breast imaging medical equipment-X-ray mammography.
In developed countries, X-ray mammography screening has long been regarded as an important means of early detection of breast cancer. Since 1980, the United States and European countries have first used mammography for breast cancer screening. Discovery and early treatment can reduce the mortality rate by about 30%.
1. Development history of mammography
Roentgen discovered X-rays, and mammography applications were made possible.
Although there were X-ray examinations in the early 1940s, they were not satisfactory, with poor imaging quality and inaccurate examination results. Due to the technical limitations of the time, mammograms were very dark and blurry.
In order to enhance the image quality, "thorium" contrast agent began to be used, but "thorium" has radioactive hazards to the human body, and people at that time did not know it. It was not until the middle of the 20th century that there was a report that "thorium contrast agent can cause malignant tumors". out, 19 years after the first use of thorium contrast agents.
History always sums up progress in mistakes. In 1959, Dr. Robert Egan, later known as the "father of mammography", first published the combined mammography technology. This new technology not only improved the imaging quality , Improve the visibility and repeatability of screening, and greatly reduce the amount of radiation. Thanks to Dr. Egan's efforts, screening mammograms are used in many medical institutions, and the research results are astonishingly accurate.
From the 1960s to the 1990s, a study covering more than 600,000 women in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and Sweden confirmed that the use of mammography screening can reduce breast cancer mortality. Lay the foundation for the wide application of radiography.
In 1986, the American College of Radiology proposed for the first time the establishment of a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to enhance communication between imaging physicians and clinicians, and for the first time formulated a system that included mammography, breast ultrasound, and breast imaging. The standardized method, including the three techniques of magnetic resonance imaging, has been updated to the fifth edition so far.
The data confirm that the mortality rate of breast cancer begins to decline after 3-4 years of mammography screening, and can be reduced by 40% after 7 years; the mortality rate of women under the age of 50 is also gradually decreasing with the extension of follow-up time .
So far, mammography has become one of the most commonly used examination methods for the diagnosis of breast diseases. Compared with breast ultrasound and breast magnetic resonance, it is more extensive and complements other breast examination methods. 
2. The difference between mammography examination and ordinary X-ray examination
Mammography is different from ordinary X-ray examinations. The two are different, mainly because of the different imaging methods.
Initially, in order to make X-rays suitable for mammary glands, the design required a soft ray (compared to chest X-rays or bone x-rays). The soft ray is emitted by a "target" made of an element called "molybdenum". Hence the name mammography.
Of course, with the continuous updating of technology, later machines no longer simply use "molybdenum", and now many devices use "tungsten" or "rhodium" as the element that emits X-rays, but people in the industry are still accustomed to calling it "molybdenum". Mammography".
The advent of digital technology has made mammography examination even more powerful. Ordinary X-ray examinations mainly use X-ray exposure to form X-ray film. The patient’s condition is diagnosed through the analysis of the film. However, artifacts may appear in film shooting, which will further cause affect the test results.
Mammography mammography will digitize X-ray photography information and convert fuzzy information into digital information. Computer technology can be used to form image post-processing. Through low-dose X-ray irradiation, breast microcalcifications can be found, which can be better analyzed The patient's disease condition, so the result is accurate.
Some special breast cancers, such as ductal carcinoma in situ, may have no mass and only show calcification. For this type of tumor, after suspicious calcification is found, X-rays can also be used for preoperative positioning and precise resection during surgery. In this regard, mammography is simply irreplaceable.
3. What conditions require mammography screening?
* Female breast disease screening - mainly for early detection of breast cancer.
* Check for potential lesions: breast skin thickening, bloody nipple discharge, skin inflammatory findings, and axillary
    When fossa lymph nodes are enlarged, mammography is done to find potential lesions in the breast tissue.
* Clarify the nature of the disease: when there is a lump in the breast, the nature of the lump needs to be clarified.
* Clarify the scope of lesions: for newly discovered breast cancer, a comprehensive breast examination is required before determining the treatment plan,
    To clarify whether there are occult lesions and determine the scope and nature of lesions.
* Breast disease follow-up visits: after breast conserving breast cancer surgery, regular breast mammography examinations are required to monitor breast cancer
    With or without recurrence.
* Other conditions: according to the advice of breast specialists.
4. Why is mammography better for breast cancer screening?
More reliable: It can observe the influence of various physiological factors (such as menstrual cycle, pregnancy, breastfeeding, multipartum situation and endocrine changes, etc.) , some precancerous lesions can be found, and follow-up film observation can also be carried out;
Smarter: It can be used as a relatively non-invasive inspection method, which can comprehensively and correctly reflect the general anatomical structure of the entire breast; the inspection is comfortable, time-consuming, low-kV, and more intelligent.
Clearer: Guaranteed extremely high image definition, which can meet the needs of all-round clinical applications, screening and diagnostic digital mammography, especially the configuration of 3D stereotaxic biopsy system and breast 3D tomography can solve the problem of some difficult breast diseases Inspection and diagnosis.
More targeted: Mammography, for typical hard breasts, such as breasts of women undergoing radiation therapy and hormone therapy, has strong penetrating power, and can automatically and accurately select the most suitable breast cancer according to individual breast characteristics Optimum exposure parameters to achieve personalized diagnosis and treatment. Carry out follow-up examinations for the lesions of breast cancer patients after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, observe the curative effect, and conduct regular monitoring of the healthy breast.
However, ultrasound is still a commonly used imaging device in major hospitals. Ultrasound and mammography are not black and white, and sometimes they need to cooperate with each other.
Ultrasound is mainly used to identify masses and is less sensitive to small calcifications, while mammography is extremely sensitive to calcifications, such as malignant breast lesions, but it is easy to miss masses. Therefore, sometimes doctors may recommend these two Inspections are required, and the results complement each other. In short, just follow the doctor's advice on how to do it.
With the advent of the era of smart medical care, breast screening can also store images indefinitely, realize remote transmission and consultation. More accurate, the success rate of treatment will be further improved.
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