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The history of endoscopy

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Update time : 2023-09-24 10:41:00
The most powerful force driving the progress of human society is probably human curiosity.
Humanity's thirst for knowledge and exploration of the outside world has given us today supercomputers, artificial satellites, etc., as well as the huge Internet - completely changing or even subverting each of our lives.
And human beings’ interest in themselves began a long time ago. Today our topic is – endoscopy.
It is said that some telescopes were discovered during the excavation of the ruins of Pompeii (located in Italy, submerged due to a volcanic eruption in 79 AD). This was probably the prototype of an early speculum used to detect the human body.
Even earlier, it can be traced back to a rectal telescope mentioned in the works of the famous ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. It can be said to be the earliest instrument used to examine the human body's own organs in recorded history.
In fact, the original endoscope was also used for medicine, and later it gradually developed into industry.
Endoscopes are mainly composed of three parts: endoscope system, image display system and lighting system, and each part is composed of many different components. In this regard, industrial endoscopes and medical endoscopes are similar.
Medical endoscope is a commonly used medical device that can enter the human body through natural orifices or small surgical incisions to help doctors diagnose, analyze and treat diseased areas. Most ordinary people are familiar with (kong ju) gastroscopy, colonoscopy, etc.
The development of modern endoscopes has gone through a long period of time. According to the development stage, it can be divided into rigid tube endoscopes, semi-flexible endoscopes, fiber optic endoscopes and electronic endoscopes.
The origin of endoscopy
In 1806, Philipp Bozzini (1773-1809) demonstrated his new invention "Lichtleiter" - an instrument consisting of a vase-shaped light source, a candle and a series of lenses at the Joseph Institute of Surgical Medicine in Vienna. This was the predecessor of endoscopy, but it was not taken seriously at the time. Instead, it was punished by medical schools. Probably people found it difficult to accept this incredible method. Those pioneers were always ruthlessly attacked by powerful conservatives, until one day people Suddenly I realized he was right.
However, there are always some people who are brave enough to try it - for example, the French surgeon Desormeaux quickly improved it and applied it to human examination. This landmark new invention also made Bozny known as the inventor of modern endoscopy.
However, this kind of endoscope has obvious flaws and can easily cause perforation. Because the light is not enough, a lens needs to be used to focus the light to increase the brightness. Burn complications are unavoidable, so the pain it brings to people is probably unimaginable.
Over the next two hundred years, clinicians and scientists continued to explore, bringing the technology of this examination tool to a newer level.
In 1868, Désormeaux and Segelar first used the term "endoscope" in an article. The main form at that time was a rigid endoscope, which went through two stages: an open rigid endoscope and an endoscope containing an optical system. After Edison invented the incandescent lamp in 1880, rigid endoscopes used light bulbs as their lighting source during that period. With the continuous improvement of optical systems, oral endoscopy, gastroscopy, esophagoscopy, laparoscopy, etc. have all made great progress.
rigid endoscope
semi-flexible endoscope
In 1932, the first truly semi-flexible endoscope (semiflexible lens gastroscope) appeared. This semi-flexible gastroscope was developed by Schindler in 1928 in cooperation with the instrument manufacturer Wolf. Named the Wolf-Schindler gastroscope, it is characterized by the flexibility of the front end and the ability to enter some curved structures.
flexible endoscope
fiber optic endoscope
In 1957, Hirschowitz and his research team made the world's first optical fiber endoscope for examining the stomach and duodenum, which kicked off the development of fiber endoscopy. This kind of endoscope uses an optical fiber image transmission beam as the medium for light guide and image transmission. It has soft bending properties and better lighting effects. It effectively avoids the risk of human body being burned. It has been rapidly applied and developed.
fiber optic endoscope
electronic endoscope
In 1983, the electronic endoscope developed by the American Welch Allyn Company was born, which used a miniature image sensor to replace the optical fiber imaging bundle. It converted the photoelectric signal through an optoelectronic coupling device, and finally displayed the image on the monitor. It could also be equipped with auxiliary devices for information processing. input and diagnostic processing tools, and more.
Electronic endoscopes have high resolution, clear images, bright colors, high strength, long life, and are more durable. They can be viewed by multiple people and can store image data. They have advantages that cannot be replaced by other forms of endoscopes.
With the continuous advancement of science and technology, new endoscopic technologies are also developing, and their applications fully cover the digestive tract, ear canal, nasal cavity, urinary system, respiratory tract, gynecology, abdominal cavity and even ophthalmology. More lightweight and intelligent Endoscopes bring great convenience to modern surgical examinations and operations.
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