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Understand The Working Of An Anesthesia Machine

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Update time : 2023-11-03 17:13:00
What is an anesthesia machine?
The anesthesia machine delivers the anesthetic into the patient's alveoli through a mechanical circuit, forming a partial pressure of the anesthetic gas. After it diffuses into the blood, it directly inhibits the central nervous system, thereby producing the effect of general anesthesia. The anesthesia machine is a semi-open anesthesia device. It is an advanced medical equipment that can transport a variety of gases and volatile anesthetics, control and assist the patient's breathing, and at the same time adjust the patient's consciousness and pain level during the operation. Anesthesia machine literally means a machine for anesthesia. In layman's terms, an anesthesia machine is a medical device used for inhalation anesthesia and respiratory management.
The anesthesia machine is equipped with an anesthetic vaporizer that can accurately adjust the concentration of inhaled anesthetics, and it also has a sealed breathing tube to ensure that there is no leakage of the drug.
The principle and structure of anesthesia machine
When the anesthesia machine is working, it first decompresses the high-pressure gas (air, oxygen, laughing gas, etc.) through the pressure reducing valve to obtain low-pressure and stable gas, and then adjusts it through the flow meter and the oxygen and laughing gas proportion control device to produce a certain flow rate and ratio. The mixed gas enters the breathing circuit; the anesthetic drug generates anesthetic vapor through the vaporizer, and controls the required amount of anesthetic vapor to enter the breathing circuit, and is transported to the operator along with the mixed gas. The mixed gas containing the anesthetic vapor is inhaled by the human body The negative inspiratory pressure generated during the operation is inhaled into the lungs and transported to various organs of the human body through blood circulation, causing the organs to temporarily lose consciousness and various reflexes within a certain period of time, thereby achieving the purpose of anesthesia.
In terms of working principle, the structure of an anesthesia machine mainly includes a gas supply and control loop system, a breathing and ventilation loop system, a purge system, and a set of system functions and breathing circuit monitors. However, if we look at the basic structure of an anesthesia machine, , it is mainly divided into seven major parts: (1) Air supply device (2) Flow meter (3) Evaporator (4) Ventilation system (5) Anesthesia ventilator (6) Monitoring and alarm device (8) Anesthesia residual gas Clear system
The vaporizer (also called the evaporator) is a key component of the anesthesia machine, similar to the engine in a car. It evaporates the liquid anesthetic into a gaseous anesthetic, controls its concentration, then mixes it with oxygen, and smoothly "sucks" it into the patient's lungs to achieve the purpose of anesthesia.
The development of anesthesia machines has been accompanied by the development of anesthetic drugs, from simple instruments to complex equipment. At present, in addition to the basic elements of air supply system, flow control system, anesthesia evaporator and anesthesia circuit, ventilators and anesthesia waste gas removal are gradually added. systems, as well as advanced equipment such as intelligent information processing systems and life monitoring systems.
Types of inhalation anesthesia machines
1. Air anesthesia machine
The air anesthesia machine is a semi-open anesthesia device. It mainly consists of a liquid tank, an ether adjustment switch, a folding bellows, a one-way valve for inhalation and exhalation, and a bellows. The device is lightweight and applicable, can directly use air and oxygen as carrier gas, can assist breathing and control breathing, and meet various surgical requirements. The disadvantage of this device is that the concentration of ether is low and can only be used to maintain anesthesia, and the consumption of ether is large, which can easily cause environmental pollution.
2. DC anesthesia machine
The DC anesthesia machine consists of high-pressure oxygen, a pressure reducer, a flow meter, and an anesthetic liquid evaporator. This device can only provide oxygen and adjust the anesthetic concentration of the inhaled gas. Other devices must be connected in series with the output site to perform anesthesia.
3. Closed circulation anesthesia machine
The device uses low-flow anesthetic mixed gas to supply the patient with one-way flow through the escape valve (door). The exhaled gas enters the CO2 absorber through the exhalation valve for reuse. Its structure mainly consists of oxygen supply and nitrous oxide devices, gas flow meter, evaporator, CO2 absorber; one-way valve, breathing pipeline, escape valve, air storage bag, etc.
But no matter how the appearance of the anesthesia machine changes, how the internal parts are assembled, and how powerful the functions are, its two main functions have never been given up and are constantly optimized and improved. One is the anesthesia function, and the other is the respiratory and ventilation function.
The anesthesia function is realized by the vaporizer, and the ventilation function is realized by the ventilator. When the bellows compresses, pure oxygen or air-oxygen mixed gas mixed with inhaled anesthetics is forced into the patient's lungs; when the bellows relaxes, the lungs use their own elasticity to retract and return the residual gas in the alveoli to the anesthesia machine. This process Similar to human breathing, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged back and forth in the breathing tube to ensure that the patient receives oxygen under anesthesia, which is the patient's lifeline.
Clinical applications of anesthesia machines
Clinical application of anesthesia machine: There are four purposes of clinical anesthesia, which are divided into four elements, mainly analgesia, loss of consciousness, muscle relaxation, and nerve radiation suppression. From the above four elements, it can be seen that the clinical application of anesthesia machine The application can help analgesia, relax muscles, inhibit nerve radiation, and at the same time make the patient lose consciousness, which helps the smooth progress of anesthesia surgery.
Precautions for using anesthesia machine
Anesthesia machine equipment must be debugged and inspected before each use. To ensure the normal operation of the equipment.
The safety of the patient should be given top priority during the anesthesia process. If a malfunction occurs, do not rush to eliminate the malfunction during the anesthesia process and ignore the patient.
High-end anesthesia machines will add some sensors to these pipelines to ensure oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide concentration, and inhaled anesthetic concentration, etc. They will also add alarm devices to prevent alveolar expansion and rupture caused by excessive mechanical pressure, and to prevent the machine from not working or Accidental hypoxia occurs when malfunction occurs.
In addition to ensuring the above two functions, modern anesthesia machines are also equipped with various monitoring devices or sensors according to clinical needs, such as monitoring airway pressure changes, vital sign parameters, anesthetic gas inhalation and exhalation concentration, oxygen concentration, and indirectly reflecting the depth of anesthesia. , muscle relaxation and other aspects of data, as well as safety devices to prevent hypoxia and suffocation, necessary alarm systems, anesthesia residual gas removal systems and carbon dioxide monitoring systems, etc. Advanced anesthesia machines are also equipped with anesthesia information management systems, which can receive, analyze, and store information related to anesthesia clinical and administrative management, automatically collect monitor information, and automatically generate anesthesia records and other functions.
As the saying goes, "A front line of life is a front line of death." Patients under anesthesia rely entirely on the anesthesia machine to supply oxygen. Its quality determines the quality of anesthesia and the patient's life safety.
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