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What are the basic components and principles of the endoscopic camera system?

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Update time : 2024-01-26 16:41:00
Medical endoscope is a testing instrument that integrates traditional optics, ergonomics, precision machinery, modern electronics, mathematics, and software.
An endoscope is mainly composed of image sensors, optical lenses, light sources, mechanical devices and other components. It can enter the body through the natural orifice of the human body or small surgical incisions. The endoscope can be used to see lesions that cannot be shown by X-rays. Doctors The best treatment plan can be formulated accordingly. According to Xingxingchao data, medical endoscopes are mainly divided into the following two categories: Rigid endoscopes: cannot be bent, and enter sterile tissues, organs, and sterile chambers of the human body through surgical incisions, mainly including laparoscopy, Thoracoscopy, arthroscopy, etc. Rigid endoscopes can be divided into white light rigid endoscopes and fluorescent rigid endoscopes. Flexible endoscope: It can be bent freely and enters the body through the natural orifice of the human body. The scope is long and has a certain degree of flexibility. The photoelectric signal transmission distance is long. The diameter of the insertion part of the scope is small and the function integration is complex. It has a great impact on the design process. And manufacturing technology requirements are higher and have higher technical barriers, mainly including gastroscopy, colonoscopy, bronchoscopy, etc.
Medical endoscopes are mainly composed of three major systems, namely the endoscope system, the image display system, and the lighting system. Taking the currently more commonly used electronic endoscope as an example, the scope extends into the patient's body, and multiple pipes are arranged inside the scope, including lighting optical fibers, image transmission optical fibers, air transmission channels, water transmission channels, instrument channels, etc. Data shows that endoscopy is extremely precise and requires the cooperation of multiple professional fields. Speculum system: mainly includes handle and scope body. The mirror body is mainly composed of objective lens, image transmission components, eyepieces, lighting components and auxiliary components. Image display system: Early endoscopes or rigid-tube endoscopes used direct vision, while current electronic endoscopes usually consist of CCD/CMOS photoelectric sensors, displays, computers and image processors. Lighting system: mainly lighting sources, light beams, etc. The earliest endoscopic equipment used hot light sources, such as natural light, kerosene lamps, energized platinum wire rings, small incandescent lamps, etc., which can easily cause burns to the human body and require a water cooling device. Nowadays, cold light sources are commonly used, mainly LED light sources. Xenon lamp, halogen lamp.
Imaging lens: In the past, spherical design was used, which increased aberration and deformation, resulting in obvious undesirable phenomena such as unclear images, distorted field of view, and narrow field of view. However, the current aspheric design is composed of spherical surfaces and curved surfaces other than flat surfaces. By changing the curvature of the lens, the light is gathered at a fixed focus, correcting the image and solving problems such as field of view distortion, while making the lens lighter, thinner, and flatter. Image sensor: The image sensor is a sensor that senses optical image information and converts it into usable output information. It is an important component of a digital camera. Can be divided into charge coupled devices (CCD) and metal oxide semiconductor devices (CMOS). CCD has high resolution, wide dynamic range, and low distortion, but has high power consumption; CMOS has small size, low energy consumption, low cost, and high system integration, but has low signal-to-noise ratio and poor image quality. There is no technological gap between domestic and foreign countries. big.
Image Noise Reduction: Image noise reduction refers to the process of reducing noise in digital images. In the endoscopic camera system, due to the particularity of the application scenario, targeted image processing needs to be carried out based on the application characteristics of minimally invasive surgery to meet the needs of clinical diagnosis and treatment. When the endoscope moves, blurry images will be generated. Use a noise reduction algorithm to filter out the pixels that move relatively slowly relative to the object in the captured image, thereby keeping the image clean and clear, allowing doctors to make accurate diagnoses; edge enhancement technology It uses algorithms to generate high-contrast blood vessel views to facilitate doctors' analysis; using technologies such as false color imaging and digital filtering, some inconspicuous or early lesions can be highlighted. Edge enhancement: The purpose of edge enhancement is to improve the quality and recognizability of the image, make the image more conducive to observation or further analysis and processing, and help doctors more comprehensively view abnormal phenomena in tissues. It is also very important in endoscopic image processing. technology. Xingxingxing data shows that, for example, it is difficult to distinguish small blood vessels from surrounding tissue based on color, but edge enhancement technology can be used to generate a higher-contrast view of blood vessels for doctors to analyze. In addition, edge enhancement is often used to improve the view quality of tissue texture images and mucosal surface images.
The world's first endoscope was created by French doctor Deshomio in 1853. Medical endoscope is a testing instrument that integrates traditional optics, ergonomics, precision machinery, modern electronics, mathematics, and software. It is mainly composed of image sensors, optical lenses, light sources, mechanical devices and other components. It can pass through the human body. Natural orifices or small surgical incisions are used to enter the body, and the endoscope can be used to see lesions that cannot be shown by X-rays, and doctors can formulate the best treatment plan accordingly.
Endoscopes are mainly divided into the following two categories:
rigid endoscope
It cannot be bent and enters sterile tissues, organs, and sterile chambers of the human body through surgical incisions. It mainly includes laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, arthroscopy, etc. Rigid endoscopes can be divided into white light hard endoscopes and fluorescent hard endoscopes.
Flexible endoscope
It can be bent freely and enters the body through the natural orifice of the human body. The lens body is long and has a certain degree of flexibility. The photoelectric signal transmission distance is long. The diameter of the insertion part of the lens body is small and the functional integration is complex. It requires higher design process and manufacturing technology. , with high technical barriers, mainly including gastroscopy, colonoscopy, bronchoscopy, etc.
The advantages of medical endoscopes in clinical applications are flexible, simple, convenient and more direct operation. Patient discomfort is minimized, and new technologies reduce surgical complexity and treatment time. It greatly improves diagnostic capabilities and improves work efficiency. Convenient for teaching, clinical case discussion, and remote consultation. It facilitates close cooperation with patients and enables better communication between medical staff and patients. Provide reliable information for teaching and scientific research.
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