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What are the different types of medical waste incinerators?

Views : 561
Update time : 2023-02-17 13:37:02

Medical waste incinerator is an environmental protection equipment that incinerates waste gas, waste liquid, solid waste fuel, medical waste, domestic waste, animal carcasses, etc. A product of thermal energy.

There are many classification methods from different angles, here are the following:

1. According to the classification of the incineration chamber, it can be divided into: single-chamber incinerator and multi-chamber incinerator.

2. According to the relationship between combustion flue gas and the direction of garbage movement, the furnace body can be divided into downstream type, countercurrent type, alternating current type and secondary flow type.

3. According to the fixed method, it can be divided into fixed incinerator and mobile incinerator.

Since medical waste is mostly composed of plastic products, glass products and residual medicines, if it is not treated and discarded, it will pollute the living environment and bring safety hazards to people's health. The medical waste incinerator is a stove equipment specially designed to incinerate medical waste. It is an essential waste disposal machine for hospitals.

The medical waste incinerator is mainly composed of four major systems: a waste pretreatment system, an incineration system, a smoke biochemical dust removal system and a gas generator (auxiliary ignition and incineration). The medical waste incinerator integrates automatic feeding, sieving, drying, incineration, ash cleaning, dust removal, and automatic control. The medical waste incinerator meets the monitoring requirements of sewage discharge through high-temperature combustion, secondary oxygen addition, and high-tech measures such as automatic slag unloading. In order to enhance the effect of domestic waste incineration, thermal decomposition and gasification (melting) technologies are often applied in incineration.

The principle of the grate incinerator is: supply the garbage to the heat-resistant cast iron (steel) grate, ventilate from the lower part of the grate, and burn the garbage.

The incineration principle of the fluidized bed incinerator is: ventilate in the porous tube at the bottom of the tower furnace, so that the upper sand layer flows to form a fluidized layer. Contact, so as to burn instantly, and the ash after combustion is brought to the flue gas treatment system by the combustion gas.

The incineration principle of the gasification melting furnace is: firstly, the garbage is thermally decomposed into combustible gas and solid residue mainly composed of charcoal in the reducing gas at 450-600 ° C, and then burned and melted.

The design of the medical waste incinerator should comprehensively consider the processing scale of the factory, the nature of the waste to be processed, the mechanical load and thermal load of the grate, the thermal load of the combustion chamber, the outlet temperature of the combustion chamber, the residence time of the flue gas, and the rate of heat loss. design.

Next, we will mainly introduce the following common medical waste incinerators in detail

1. Gasification pyrolysis incinerator

The gasification pyrolysis incinerator has two incineration chambers, the first combustion chamber and the second combustion chamber. The outer shell is processed and welded with steel plates, and the interior is built with refractory materials. The direction of movement is constantly changed in the vertical direction, so that the combustible gas and combustible dust particles from the first combustion chamber are fully mixed to burn completely. The waste enters from the hopper at the upper part of the front end of the incinerator through the chute, and the waste is sent into the first combustion chamber by the pneumatic furnace door. The garbage entering the first combustion chamber is heated by a refractory wall or a disposable burner through temperature adjustment. The top and front are blown in, and the large particles are burned up through the air nozzle installed at the bottom of the furnace before entering the secondary combustion chamber. There are two ash conveyors at the bottom of the first combustion chamber, which automatically rotate the garbage and transport the ash to the ash chamber, where it enters the ash hopper after being burnt out. After the unburned flue gas is mixed at the inlet of the second combustion chamber, it is completely burned in the second combustion chamber. The temperature of the first combustion chamber is 500°C-800°C, the temperature of the second combustion chamber is 900°C-1100°C, and the residence time is more than 2 seconds. Auxiliary burners are installed on the side walls of the first combustion chamber and the second combustion chamber, which are used when the incinerator is started and the waste calorific value is low to maintain the furnace temperature.

2. Mechanical grate industrial waste incinerator

Working principle: Waste enters the obliquely downward grate through the feed hopper (the grate is divided into drying area, burning area, and burnout area). Due to the interlaced movement between the grates, the waste is pushed downward, so that the waste is sequentially After passing through various areas on the grate (when the waste enters from one area to another area, it will have the effect of turning around), until it is burned out and discharged from the furnace. The combustion air enters from the bottom of the grate and mixes with the waste; the high-temperature flue gas passes through the heating surface of the boiler to generate hot steam, and the flue gas is also cooled, and finally the flue gas is discharged after being treated by the flue gas treatment equipment.

3. Fluidized bed industrial waste incinerator

Working principle: The furnace body is composed of porous distribution plates, adding a large amount of quartz sand in the furnace, heating the quartz sand to above 600°C, and blowing hot air above 200°C at the bottom of the furnace to make the hot sand boil, and then put it into the furnace. waste. The waste jubilates with the hot sand, and the waste is quickly dried, caught fire, and incinerated. The unburned waste has a relatively light specific gravity and continues to be incinerated with jubilation. The burned waste has a large specific gravity and falls to the bottom of the furnace. The quartz sand is sent back to the furnace for continuous use through the lifting equipment.

4. Rotary kiln incinerator

Rotary kiln is the most widely used type of furnace in movable hearth. The furnace type technology is mature, simple and flexible, and is widely used to incinerate various types of solid, semi-solid and liquid wastes, especially suitable for incinerating medical wastes and hazardous wastes with high moisture content and refractory treatment. Small size, high removal rate of harmful components, simple equipment and long-term continuous operation, are widely used in various countries. The rotary kiln body is a horizontal and rotatable cylindrical shell. The outer shell is made of plate coils and lined with refractory materials; the axis of the cylinder and the horizontal plane maintain a certain inclination angle, and the solid and viscous wastes move slowly from the kiln head (upper part) to the tail with the rotation of the kiln body. Make the material fully contact with the combustion-supporting air during the combustion process, and complete the whole process of drying, burning and burning. Finally, the embers are discharged from the tail. Materials that are not completely decomposed will enter the secondary combustion chamber for full combustion. Combustion-supporting air is taken from the silo to ensure that the odor of the silo does not leak out. The shell of the kiln body is rolled and welded by carbon structural steel plate. The refractory materials in the kiln are acid-resistant refractory clay bricks. The second combustion chamber is a cylindrical cylinder perpendicular to the ground. Its main function is to further pyrolyze the unburned harmful substances in the rotary kiln body, and at the same time, it can also inject part of the liquid waste into incineration. In order to completely decompose the unburned matter, the secondary combustion chamber is equipped with a secondary air intake device and a gas nozzle of the producer to ensure that the flue gas fully contacts with oxygen at high temperature and the residence time of the flue gas in the secondary combustion chamber. The air intake volume of the second combustion chamber can be automatically adjusted according to the oxygen content of the flue gas at its outlet. The secondary combustion chamber is of refractory brick structure, with high-alumina refractory layer inside, perlite and aluminum silicate fiber felt as insulation layer, and heat-resistant steel plate outside. In order to ensure the safety of the system, an emergency discharge safety valve is installed on the top of the secondary combustion chamber. The emergency discharge safety valve can be automatically opened according to the pre-set opening conditions.

The above are the common types of medical waste incinerators on the market. If you are interested in this aspect, you can contact us for communication. Yueshen Medical is a manufacturer of medical devices with many years of experience in research and development of medical devices. sales experience. Welcome to contact us for relevant business exchanges!

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